The Theodor-Billroth-Academy® (TBA®) actively supports and promotes  education and training, and

interest of the subject "Surgery" and „Academic Surgery“ as well as Science and Research.


In a first step, in 2008 the realization of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy® (TBA®) with the establishment of the module Summer-School to promote surgical junior academics was performed between 2008 and 2012.


This was followed by the consequent establishment and expansion of the worldwide scientific network. Its web group is located at LinkedIn.


Another crucial step was the creation of the International Consortium of Research Excellence (INCORE) of the TBA® and major publications, which can be reviewed at PubMed.


The Theodor-Billroth-Academy® (TBA®) feels very thankful and privileged being a part of the next huge interdisciplinary global endeavor, the new inter- and multidisciplinary MEGA Journal 4open since its start 2011, which was officially launched by EDP Sciences in 2017. Multiple different concepts in varied levels with diverse priorities were created that are already in the process of being realized and each will be shared when the time is ready. Key words are: Universities, Academia, Institutions, Personalities, etc. This reveals, that the website of 4open you see right now is also the beginning only



“The time will come soon when our colleagues and students place stringent demands on us and our actions, in which general comments about the success of this or that operation will be not enough anymore, but keeps any doctor for a charlatan who will be not able to express his experiences in numbers" in „Chirurgische Erfahrungen“ (Zürich 1860-1867)

~ Theodor Billroth (1829-1894)



Background to the name


Theodor Billroth (1829–1894) was a national and international a very well-known and celebrated surgeon. During his career, he achieved something that was completely new at that time: he not only documented every operation that he carried out, including its perioperative and / or postoperative complications, but he also published these data for a scientific audience, initiating a public and critical debate. His input not only led to heated debates within the newly founded 'Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie', but also led to open discussion of postoperative outcomes. This in itself made information about postoperative morbidity available to a wider community, and it must therefore be regarded as representing a substantial advance towards a new style of surgical behavior in what was then a new academic community. Theodor Billroth can therefore be regarded as one of the founders of academic surgery.



Christian Albert Theodor Billroth


(* 26.04.1829 – Bergen at the island Rügen, Germany)

(† 06.02.1894 – Abbazia, Istria, Italy)


German surgeon, he is the founder of the modern abdominal surgery, pioneer of the laryngeal surgery, and co-founder of scientific academic surgery worldwide . From 1853 to 1860, he was assistant to Bernhard von Langenbeck at the Charité in Berlin, habilitated (accordance to PhD) in 1856.


In 1858 he declined a call to the position of pathological anatomy at the university of Greifswald and was Chair in 1860 in Zurich , Switzerland. Furthermore, he refused offers to Rostock in 1862 and 1864 to Heidelberg in 1867 and took over the Chair of the 2nd Department of surgery in Vienna, Austria, until his death.


Billroth performed on 29th January 1881 the first successful distal gastrectomy for a gastric tumor patient. In 1871 he performed the first time a partial esophagectomy and 1873, the first laryngectomy. There are two forms of gastric resection, which are named after him: Billroth I and II operation.


He stood long in friendship with Johannes Brahms.


Billroth was buried in a grave of honor in Vienna's Central Cemetery (Group 14A, number 7).




Munich | Germany – Sacramento, California | USA